BRUSSELS - The studies reveal that the top ten highest-selling auto manufacturers will face a collective fine of 114.6 billion euros in 2021 if they do not drastically reduce their carbon footprint.

The brand Daimler AG is the furthest from the EU's CO2 targets for 2021, which could result in annual penalties of 13.3 billion euros based on fleet emissions.

The Groupe PSA produced the most polluting bestseller models last year, the compensation of which alone would cost 1.263 billion euros.

No car manufacturer is currently on the way to meet EU targets as the transportation sector is still responsible for 24% of annual global CO2 emissions.

The data comes from several sources, including automotive manufacturers' annual reports, EUROPA,, and carbon engineering. Tons are metric. For

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